Underwater archaeological excavation is very similar to traditional land archaeology.We use similar tools but usually the plastic version of the tool so that it does not fall apart in the salt water.However, wet organic materials are very sensitive to light, movement, and chemical changes (such as being moved from salt to fresh water too quickly).
This tool-making technology was a more complex way of making stone tools than the earlier Oldowan technology.
More flakes were knocked off from both sides of a stone and there is evidence that the maker had a preconceived notion of the tool's final form.
Getting together the archaeologists with proper dive training and experience and all of the necessary underwater tools is very hard compared to typical land excavations.
Most people are rather surprised to hear that it is actually easier to excavate underwater than on land once all of the preparations have been made.
Acropolis - The "high point" or citadel of an ancient Greek city, like the Acropolis in Athens.
It is generally a raised area above the rest of the city where the most important sacred and secular buildings are brought together.However, rather than shovel dirt into a bucket or wheelbarrow and bringing it to a fine screen to shake it, or wash it with water to remove the dirt, we use a 100ft hose connected to a large dredge engine with a pump that moves 600 gallons of water a minute to suck the seafloor sediments like a giant vacuum cleaner.The dredge tube brings the sediments from the bottom and deposits them on our 8 by 12 foot floating screen deck that has mesh as fine as 1/16th of an inch to catch even the smallest of artifacts or bone fragments.The buildings on the Athenian Acropolis were important for trade and worship.Aerial Photography - The various techniques of taking photographs of natural or cultural features from the air, using balloons, airplanes, satellites, and other sources, in order to study the features in their entirety from a top-down (bird's eye) view.Ideally you do not want a specimen to be handled very much because of the movement and potential for exposure to chemicals in the air.