Acropolis - The "high point" or citadel of an ancient Greek city, like the Acropolis in Athens.
It is generally a raised area above the rest of the city where the most important sacred and secular buildings are brought together.
Organic material such as bone, plant fibers, seeds, branches, and an incredibly array of perishable technology is often better preserved underwater than it is on land.
Underwater archaeological work is similar to terrestrial excavation in many respects but requires the use of additional techniques and methods, particularly when sensitive organic materials are found that require special handling techniques and processing methods.
The goals of archaeology remain the same wherever Paleoindian fieldwork is conducted- namely, we wish to learn more about our shared human past and how, and when, and where, people came to the New World and survived in a rapidly changing environment at the end of the Pleistocene.
Getting together the archaeologists with proper dive training and experience and all of the necessary underwater tools is very hard compared to typical land excavations.
Most people are rather surprised to hear that it is actually easier to excavate underwater than on land once all of the preparations have been made.
Most “tools of the trade” used on terrestrial archaeological digs are used underwater in our excavations as well.
Hand trowels, square units, clipboards, pencils, tape measures, and other hand tools are all used underwater to excavate sites as they are used on land.
Today alidades are being replaced by Total Stations.
Alloy - A substance made by the mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal.
However, rather than shovel dirt into a bucket or wheelbarrow and bringing it to a fine screen to shake it, or wash it with water to remove the dirt, we use a 100ft hose connected to a large dredge engine with a pump that moves 600 gallons of water a minute to suck the seafloor sediments like a giant vacuum cleaner.
The dredge tube brings the sediments from the bottom and deposits them on our 8 by 12 foot floating screen deck that has mesh as fine as 1/16th of an inch to catch even the smallest of artifacts or bone fragments.
Underwater, we can float over the site and move in very close to any part of our excavation without actually ever touching it.