Hugo O'Conor, the founding father of the city of Tucson, Arizona authorized the construction of a military fort in that location, Presidio San Agustín del Tucsón, on August 20, 1775 (near the present downtown Pima County Courthouse).
During the Spanish period of the presidio, attacks such as the Second Battle of Tucson were repeatedly mounted by Apaches.
The city is located 108 miles (174 km) southeast of Phoenix and 60 mi (97 km) north of the U. Tucson is the 33rd largest city and the 53rd largest metropolitan area in the United States.
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In 1912, when Arizona statehood became reality, the total number of different flags that had flown over Tucson now numbered five: American, Spanish, Mexican, Confederate, and the State of Arizona.
During the territorial and early statehood periods, Tucson was Arizona's largest city and commercial center, while Phoenix was the seat of state government (beginning in 1889) and agriculture.
Communities in the vicinity of Tucson (some within or overlapping the city limits) include Casas Adobes, Catalina Foothills, Flowing Wells, Midvale Park, Tanque Verde, Tortolita, and Vail.
Towns outside the Tucson metro area include Benson to the southeast, Catalina and Oracle to the north, and Green Valley to the south.
The floodplain of the Santa Cruz River was extensively farmed during the Early Agricultural Period, circa 1200 BC to AD 150.
These people constructed irrigation canals and grew corn, beans, and other crops while gathering wild plants and hunting.
Over the following years, the city continued to grow, with the population increasing to 20,292 in 1920 and 36,818 in 1940.
In 2006, the population of Pima County, in which Tucson is located, passed one million, while the City of Tucson's population was 535,000.
Most notable, however, were the two holdups committed by masked road-agent William Whitney Brazelton.