As in other aspects, Orthodox positions reflect the mainstream of traditional Rabbinic Judaism through the ages.Attempts to codify these principles of Judaism were undertaken by several medieval authorities, including Saadia Gaon and Joseph Albo and Maimonides.Others dismissed this view entirely, citing the many debates in ancient rabbinic sources which castigated various heresies without any reference to observance.
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These, like the apopathic views of Yeshayahu Leibowitz or the Feminist interpretation of Tamar Ross, had little to no influence on the mainstream.
Orthodox Judaism affirms monotheism, the belief in one God.
Orthodox Judaism is the approach to religious Judaism which subscribes to a tradition of mass revelation, and adheres to the interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah, as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Tannaim and Amoraim.
Orthodox Judaism includes movements such as Modern Orthodox Judaism (אורתודוקסיה מודרנית), Chardal, and Ultra-Orthodox or Haredi Judaism (יהדות חרדית).
Several local Jewish papers, including New York's Jewish Week and Philadelphia's Jewish Exponent, have also dropped use of the term.
According to Shammai Engelmayer, spiritual leader of Temple Israel Community Center in Cliffside Park and former executive editor of Jewish Week, this leaves "Orthodox" as "an umbrella term that designates a very widely disparate group of people very loosely tied together by some core beliefs".
Sheer obedience, without much thought and derived from faithfulness to one's community and ancestry, was believed fit only for the common people, while the educated classes chose either of the two schools.
In the modern era, the prestige of both suffered severe blows, and "naive faith" became popular.
Soloveitchik, who was deeply influenced by Neo-Kantian ideals.