However, since a large consumption of marine foodstuffs has the potential to affect the calibration curve (see Figure 1) on an individual basis, information about the diet may be important in bomb-pulse dating of human tissue samples.
Additionally, the individual diet is of interest for studies of the development of various diseases, including breast cancer N provide dietary information since the stable isotope ratios in tissues and organs of the consumer reflect those of the diet with a small shift.
Two major effects associated with the age deviation, competing in opposite directions, were identified: (1) delay time between production and consumption of foodstuffs, which can explain Cali Bomb dates obtained before the collection date and (2) excessive consumption of marine food products, which has the potential of producing Cali Bomb dates after the collection date.
The bomb-pulse technique has to the present authors’ knowledge not yet been used to study cancer.
Understanding of the time cause for the development of human cancer tissue is of utmost importance for improved prevention and treatment strategies.
Another alternative would be that the turnover of cells is very slow resulting in an average FC value corresponding to the rise of the bomb pulse. The most plausible explanation seems to be that the carbon in the breast tumour samples mainly originates from recently consumed food.
Figure 3 shows the results from the , results only for the declining part of the bomb-pulse curve) for each subject (the year of collection was 1983).
So far, certain assumptions have had to be made in order to estimate how long a cancer has grown.
There are theoretical models to describe tumour growth rates, such as an exponential growth model or the Gompertz Model, where the latter takes into consideration a slower growth rate as the tumour size increases.
Furthermore, the paper pays attention to how dietary information can be obtained from stable isotope ratio analysis of carbon and nitrogen, also providing means to increase the accuracy of bomb-pulse dating.
Stable isotope ratio analysis may also give important information relating cancer development to diet.
A few samples lack IRMS data due to insufficient amount of sample material (m means mass of carbon (m C (ug)) and sample (m (mg)), respectively).
Table 1 only includes Cali Bomb dates after the peak in 1963 (all calibrations also return a result between the mid-1950s and beginning of the 1960s).
Tissues from 11 breast cancers, diagnosed in 1983, were retrieved from a regional biobank.