Applying this formula, one obtains values of 0.79 pmc for t = 40,000 years, 0.24 for t = 50,000 years, 0.070 pmc for 60,000 years, 0.011 pmc for 75,000 years, and .001 pmc for 95,000 years, as shown in graphical form in Fig. Table 1 contains most of Giem’s9 data plus data from some more recent papers.
Included in the list are a number of samples from Precambrian, that is, what we consider non-organic pre-Flood settings.
The reason they are presently stuck at this 40,000-year barrier is that they consistently and reproducibly measure C levels measured in the shells of six different species of mussels and snails varied from 0.1 to 0.5 pmc.
Some caution is in order with respect to the sort of comparison implicit in Table 1 and Fig. In some cases the reported values have a “background” correction, typically on the order of 0.07 pmc, subtracted from the raw measured values, while in other cases such a correction has not been made.
In most cases, the graphite results do not include such “background” corrections since they are usually intended themselves to serve as procedural blanks. 2 is to be understood only as a low precision means for comparing these AMS results.
In terms of the standard geological timescale, all these samples should be equally C content invites an explanation.
A third observation, although weaker that the first two, is that the distribution of values for non-biogenic material displays a peak offset from zero.
The reason these anomalies were not taken seriously is because the older beta-decay counting technique had difficulty distinguishing genuine low levels of C in the samples from background counts due to cosmic rays.
The AMS method, besides its inherently greater sensitivity, does not have this complication of spurious counts due to cosmic rays.
In retrospect, it is likely that many of the beta-counting analyses were indeed truly detecting intrinsic C in pre-Flood organic materials fossilized in Flood strata therefore appears to represent a powerful and testable confirmation of the young earth Creation-Flood model.
It was on this basis that Snelling3C “dead” because it was derived from Tertiary, Mesozoic, and upper Paleozoic strata having conventional radioisotope ages of 40 to 250 million years.
They found a detectable amount of surface contamination was present in the first fraction collected, but it was not large enough to make the result from the final gas fraction significantly different from the average value.
They also leached samples in hydrochloric acid for two hours and cracked open the foraminifera shells to remove secondary carbonate from inside, but these procedures did not significantly alter the measured The results …
The foraminifera from this core showed a range of C values from 0.16 to 0.4 pmc with an average, taken over 115 separate measurements, of 0.23 pmc.